Custom Coins for the School and its Commendable Students

Custom CoinsDid you think that the military units, businesses or organizations are the only ones that have the right to use custom coins? In the past, only the military has challenge coins. Today, however, is different. There are lots of uses for the modern challenge coins, and even schools use them at present.

There are schools that give custom challenge coins as awards to their deserving students. Most of the time, the coins are used as medals during athletic competitions. These also aim to boost the morale of the students and make them strive even harder to achieve their goals.

ChallengeCoins4Less is one of the coin manufacturers that use modern equipment and materials when it comes to producing high quality coins. When giving an award, it is best to give something with superior craftsmanship and design. An award should be something that a recipient will be proud to show. Nobody wants to receive a crappy looking award or medal. Instead of getting motivated upon receiving an award with poor quality, the recipient may decide not to participate in any competition again.

The School and the Coin Medal

The school that decided to use custom coins as medals should carefully think about the design of their coin medals. These must be capable of driving the students to push themselves to the limit and remain motivated throughout the entire competition. The coin medals must be enticing enough to make them develop a certain desire to win a medal or medals that they can be proud to flaunt.

The youth today are lucky to have been born in this day and age when they can freely express their thoughts. They are given a liberty to decide for themselves. They can surely make things happen when they put their hearts and minds to accomplishing their goals.

For the Outstanding Educators

The coin award is not only for students. The school administration can also give it to the educator who did an excellent job. It is not that easy to educate the youngsters and lead them to the right path. Only a teacher who has dedication and passion in his chosen profession can pull off such a nearly impossible task. It is only right to recognize such worthy individual by giving him a coin award.

Because of its size, it is easy to carry anywhere. The proud teacher can flaunt it wherever he or she goes. The coin may even attract potential clients for the school. Also, other teachers may even get motivated to try their best and aim to get it. It also helps if the school will include a little monetary incentive together with the award to give the teachers more reason to do their best.


Finding the Right Coin Provider

Custom Challenge CoinsThere are many manufacturers of custom coins and nearly all of them follow the same pricing. To choose the best provider, it is prudent to check their company portfolio and reviews. It is also recommended to ask for the samples of their past work. It is easy to predict the outcome of their finished products if there are samples to compare.

If a certain provider presents samples of work with inconsistent quality, then it is best to try other coin providers. The samples that a coin provider must present should have the same quality. It is also important to check out 5 to 10 coin manufacturers and compare the things they offer as well as the quality of their work. It is also advisable to check if they always comply on time.

The challenge coins are still popular nowadays and there are no signs that they will suddenly vanish any time soon. Custom coins will remain as among the most effective tools that will drive someone to do his best in various aspects – marketing, enhancing camaraderie, raising a cause, promoting something, and many more. It is possible that the coins will stay here for good. If you need more information about the coins, contact ChallengeCoins4Less any time.

Understanding the Different Manufacturing Stages of Printed Circuit Board

In designing electronic devices, the foundation we use is a printed circuit board (PCB). PCB fabrication involves creating conductive pathways to interconnect the circuits by etching traces from copper sheet that are laminated onto a non-conductive insulated board referred to as substrate.

The di-electric insulating layer of the board is coated together using epoxy resin prepreg. The boards could be single or double-sided. We use the double-sided boards to connect components on both sides using through-hole plating. We do this by copper plating the holes in order to attach the conductive layers of the board.

Advantages of PCBs over Breadboards

  • PCBs have a much higher density board.
  • PCBs have a more reliable design. The circuits will not fall apart and they look orderly without exposed wires.
  • With PCBs, we have control over the components that we use and we can easily mount odd-shaped components that are usually difficult to attach on a breadboard.
  • We can use fully automated machines.
  • The expenses become less for Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEMs) when we produce large volumes of PCBs for them.

Stages in Manufacturing a Printed Circuit Board


Here at pcbnet, we work with OEMs regarding the design of their PCBs. We have our own team of designers that uses computer-aided design (CAD) software. Then, we print out the design using a laser printer. Photo basic gloss papers are a bit expensive, but they are considered as the most appropriate for the process.

PCB Design

Before printing, we make sure that all of the components are able to fit on the print. We lay down the components and make a copy of the design first on ordinary paper before printing it on a special paper. The layout size fits the exact size of the PCBs that we will manufacture.

After cutting the layout, we place it on the PCB and press an iron box on the paper to apply some heat onto the PCB. We apply pressure for a few minutes and make sure that the printed circuit board is intact. On this step, the layout will now be attached to the paper and the board. We need to remove the paper so that the layout will be attached to the board permanently. We do this by soaking the board in water for two minutes and stripping off the first sheet of paper. We soak it for another two to three hours and then remove all of the paper bits.


All printed circuit boards are created by connecting a layer of copper throughout the whole substrate, and sometimes, even on both sides. We do the PCB etching process to remove the excess copper after putting on a temporary mask, which leaves only the necessary copper traces.

There are many techniques used in etching, but the most common technique is etching using hydrochloric acid or ferric chloride. In this process, we dip the board in the solution and make sure that it keeps moving inside. We take it out from time to time and end the process when the copper layer is gone. Then after etching, we rub a little acetone to the PCB to remove the black color and give the board a shining look.


Through VIAS drilling, we attach the components to a multi-layered printed circuit board. We drill plated-through holes in annular-shaped rings. We use small drill bits made from tungsten carbide for the drilling, and then a dremel drill press is usually used to punch the holes. We use automated drilling machines when we need to produce high volumes of PCBs. We use laser drilled VIAS to drill extremely small holes because mechanical techniques could damage the PCB permanently.


Conductor Plating

The exterior surface of the PCB has copper connections that do not allow the components to be soldered. To make the soldering possible, we plate the surface with tin, nickel, or gold.

Solder Resist

The other parts that should not be soldered are coated with a solder resist material (solder mask). This is basically a polymer coat to keep the solder from getting traces and potentially making shortcuts to nearby leads.


In industrial applications, we test PCBs through different methods. All tests essentially consist of a computer program that will command the test units to run a small voltage to all contact points, and check that a certain voltage shows at the right contact points.


This stage in PCB fabrication involves the assembly of electrical components onto the corresponding holes in the board. It is done using through-hole technology or surface-mount technology (SMT). Manufacturers use both technologies, but SMT is the more popular fabrication method. The common feature of these technologies is that the leads are mechanically and electrically placed to the printed circuit board with a molten metal solder.

Challenges of a Keynote Speaker

A keynote speaker may sound confident and all positive when speaking in front of a crowd. However, behind the optimism that he has are the challenges that he has to face regularly.

Challenges are normal in any person’s career. They help us grow and be better in what we do.

Being in the industry for some time, our team already faced different obstacles, but we are proud to say that we managed to survive despite all the hardship. It may take a lot of work and effort but it is all worth it.

We have listed some of the things that our team encountered and surpassed.

Establishing Oneself as a Keynote Speaker

Keynote SpeakerBeing in a dynamic industry where people come and go, establishing yourself is not an easy task. You must be capable of advertising yourself. This is particularly true when you are just starting in your career.

As a newbie in the industry, you will end up reaching out to groups, organizations and companies to hire you as their speaker. Many of them will be hesitant to hire you since you’re still a beginner.

Expect big events and gatherings to opt to hire a speaker who is well known and had already established a reputation for himself. It takes a lot of work to find a spot in this industry. In most cases, everyone will really have to start from the bottom and crawl their way up.

Coming up with an Effective Business Flow

To have a smooth transaction with clients, you need to set a certain process on how you can find clients, go through discussions, receive payments, and close the deal. Such things may look simple but once you become part of this industry, you will realize how important it is to establish this beforehand.

Having a structure business process will ease the day-to-day business operation. This will make everyone in the team function according to his or her duties and roles. This ensures that no task will be left unattended.

Keeping up with competition

SpeakerEveryone in the industry is very competitive. The people aspiring to become keynote speakers may outnumber the number of possible clients.

Everyone wants to be on the number one spot or at least be one of those who are in the highest spot. Different speakers want to always come up with something that will make potential clients notice them more over their competitors.

This type of profession is an ongoing investment. Before you can get the money and success you want, you must invest on hiring the right people first, so you can advertise yourself and keep your business up and running.

It can be exhausting at times, especially when you need to keep up with your competitors but if you really love what you do then you must also love the challenges that come with it. At the end of the day, these challenges will be the one to further hone your skills make you better at what you do.

Finding the Right Team

People may just see one person onstage discussing things and offering inspiring words of wisdom, but in reality, there is a group of equally motivated individuals working behind. As a keynote speaker, you cannot do all the tasks by yourself. You need the help of others to help you carry out your job.

Your team will play an integral part in your success. To ensure success, you must have a team that works towards achieving one common goal. They must see to it that your success is their success.

As a speaker, you must find inspiration and motivation from everyone and everything around you. Your team must be equally dynamic and passionate with what you do.

Keeping the Passion Alive

The rewards of being a keynote speaker are great and exciting but again it takes sweat and blood before you will really get to a point that you could live the life of a superstar. Many aspiring speakers give up at the middle of the race for a lot of reasons.

A key to success in any profession is staying motivated and focused despite all the challenges that life may throw at you. The path of a keynote speaker is not different but if you continuously remind yourself what was the reason why you wanted to be a speaker then you will do great things.

A Brief History of Golf Balls

Golf balls have undergone several upgrades and advancements throughout their long history. There are 4 distinct phases in the evolution of this sports item:

  1. Wooden balls
  2. Feather-stuffed, leather-covered (featherie) balls
  3. Gutta Percha or Gutty balls
  4. Rubber core balls

From the traditional wooden golf ball to the most recent rubber-cored, the ball has transformed the way golfers play the game.

The golf ball has its origins on the Eastern Coast of Scotland, where the first breed of balls was formed out of wood. Evidence is scanty but the first golf balls were in all likelihood made of hard woods such as Boxroot or Beech. Often, wooden clubs were used together with these balls, a combination which would’ve made playing golf a rather shaky experience. This first generation of balls were used from the mid-15th century until the 17th century, when featherie balls were developed.
Golf BallsThe featherie ball, which was invented in 1618, was formed by hand-crafting a cowhide sphere filled with feathers (typically of geese). These balls were assembled while the feathers and leather were still wet. As the cowhide dried and shrunk, the feathers would expand to form a hard, compact ball. Featherie balls would then be painted and sold for more than the value of a club.

The laborious and time-consuming procedure involved in manufacturing these balls warranted that the price was beyond what the masses could afford. While expensive, featherie balls had terrific flight properties and made wooden balls obsolete almost instantly. For more than 3 centuries, feather golf balls were the standard, until it was replaced by the Gutta Percha balls, also called Gutty balls.

Gutty balls were discovered by Rev. Dr. Robert Adams in 1848:

The golf ball was made from the dried sap of Sapodilla tree. It was shaped into spheres while being heated and had a feel similar to rubber. Not long after, golfers found that an improperly smoothened ball often had better flight than a smooth one, thereby the hand-hammered Gutty ball was invented. Balls were then hammered with a steady pattern all throughout using a sharp-edged hammer.

A few years after that, handmade Gutta Percha balls gave way to the metal press process which ultimately made golf an affordable sport for lower income individuals. The Bramble design, a design that featured minute bulges and resembled a bramble berry, was the most prevalent design of the Gutty era ball. This particular pattern was then adopted with a few varieties of rubber balls.


The arrival of rubber balls revolutionized the game of golf as we see it today:

In 1898, Coburn Haskell in correlation with BF Goodrich Company invented the new design that featured a solid rubber core enclosed in a Gutta Percha covering. The rubber core had a high-tension rubber thread bound around it and a wealth of outer designs that allow for better airflow. The Bramble, mesh and reverse mesh designs were replaced by the dimple pattern, which was first employed in 1908. The first automatically-operated winding machine, which gave way to the mass production of rubber core golf balls, was patented by John Gammeter in 1900. Due to the absence of standards, weight and size of the balls varied widely.

Weight and size standards were first established by the British Golf Association in 1930, prompting the U.S. Golf Association to create their own in 1932. Specifications of both organizations differed until the standards were officially set in 1990. Below are the standards regulated by the USGA.

  • Weight: The golf ball shall not weigh greater than 45.93 gm or 1.620 oz. avoirdupois.
  • Size: The golf ball shall have a diameter of no less than 42.67 mm or 1.680 inches.
  • Spherical Symmetry: The golf ball must not be manufactured, designed or intentionally altered to have dissimilar properties with a spherically symmetrical golf ball.
  • Initial Velocity: The ball must have an initial velocity that does not go above the limit specified when measured on a device approved by the USGA.
  • Overall Distance: The combined roll and carry of the golf ball shall not go beyond the distance specified when tested on a device approved by the USGA.

Moving forward into the present, golf balls come in the widest varieties, with most manufacturers attempting to help golfers improve their performance on the green effortlessly.

You’re a beginning golfer or starting to make a name, is a great place to shop for balls and all other golf equipment of the highest quality.